3athletes suspected of using steroids

The Journal of Chiropractic Research published an article on sports performance and the effects of chiropractic care.  The study consisted of two groups of athletes; one group received weekly adjustments while the other group received no chiropractic care.  Every six weeks the athletes were tested in agility, kinesthetic perception, power and reaction time.  The group that received chiropractic care after six weeks had improved in all categories by % in comparison to the non-chiropractic care group.  After twelve weeks, the chiropractic care group had improved by % in comparison to the non-chiropractic group. 13

Laws and Penalties:  Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).  Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth.  The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal.  Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense.  The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense.  If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double.  While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS.  State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).

It is unlikely that many young athletes who experience chest pain, syncope, exercise intolerance or palpitations, or who have a clinically significant family history will reveal such information unless specifically asked. The medical history is therefore a critical aspect of the cardiac evaluation. Careful attention to the cardiac history is warranted because several of the conditions known to cause sudden cardiac death (., arrhythmias, premature coronary artery disease and aberrant coronary arteries) have no auscultatory findings. If possible, the student athlete and a parent should complete the history form together before the physical examination.

The athlete had no previous complaints of allergies until the year before when she developed some perennial rhinitis. There was no concomitant history of either urticaria or atopic dermatitis. Allergy testing revealed skin reactions to alder, maple, and grass. Other than a history of gastroesophageal reflux disease and some visual impairment, the patient had no other medical issues. She was on no medications other than multivitamins, calcium, and vitamins C and E. A lifelong nonsmoker, she did have a significant exposure to passive smoke.

3athletes suspected of using steroids

3 athletes suspected of using steroids

The athlete had no previous complaints of allergies until the year before when she developed some perennial rhinitis. There was no concomitant history of either urticaria or atopic dermatitis. Allergy testing revealed skin reactions to alder, maple, and grass. Other than a history of gastroesophageal reflux disease and some visual impairment, the patient had no other medical issues. She was on no medications other than multivitamins, calcium, and vitamins C and E. A lifelong nonsmoker, she did have a significant exposure to passive smoke.

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3 athletes suspected of using steroids3 athletes suspected of using steroids3 athletes suspected of using steroids3 athletes suspected of using steroids3 athletes suspected of using steroids