Results Three hundred ninety-nine participants (88%) completed the study. Mean weight loss for diet + exercise participants was kg (%); for the diet group, kg (%); and for the exercise group, kg (%). After 18 months, knee compressive forces were lower in diet participants (mean, 2487 N; 95% CI, 2393 to 2581) compared with exercise participants (2687 N; 95% CI, 2590 to 2784, pairwise difference [Δ] exercise vs diet = 200 N; 95% CI, 55 to 345; P = .007). Concentrations of IL-6 were lower in diet + exercise ( pg/mL; 95% CI, to ) and diet participants ( pg/mL; 95% CI, to ) compared with exercise participants ( pg/mL; 95% CI, to ; Δ exercise vs diet + exercise = pg/mL; 95% CI, − to ; P = .007; Δ exercise vs diet = pg/mL; 95% CI, to , P = .006). The diet + exercise group had less pain (; 95% CI, to ) and better function (; 95% CI, to ) than both the diet group (; 95% CI, to ) and exercise group (; 95% CI, to , Δ exercise vs diet + exercise = ; 95% CI, to ; P pain = .004; ; 95% CI, to ; Δ exercise vs diet + exercise , ; 95% CI, to ; P function < .001). The diet + exercise group (; 95% CI, to ) also had better physical health-related quality of life scores than the exercise group (; 95% CI, to ; Δ exercise vs diet + exercise = −; 95% CI, − to −; P = .005).
Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) : Of a similar make-up as the Isolate version, it still has a high biological value, it does contain more of the unwanted contents of Whey such as Fat, Lactose or Cholesterol when compared to Whey Isolate (which incidentially makes it slower absorbing than WPI). Put very simply it’s still Whey Protein, which overall is regarded as the highest quality protein type for bodybuilding, at the lowest cost.
Casein Protein : A milk protein known for its unique Peptides, excellent Amino Acid profile and slow absorption. Casein like other Protein sources provides a rich Amino Acid supply to the body. Casein is pH sensitive and gels in the acidic environment of the stomach; as such it is an extremely slow digesting Protein source that slowly enters the blood stream. Its main advantage is it shall continue to feed your muscles long after Whey Proteins have dropped off. In studies 4 Casein has shown to continue working 7 hours after consumption offering a strong Anti-Catabolic effect which is not as prominent with fast digesting Proteins. It does however have only a minor impact on Protein Synthesis, which is why this protein typically may be combined with a fast acting Whey Protein or utilized as a pre sleep, time release or night time supplement.
Egg Protein : In years gone bodybuilders would consume eggs like they were going out of fashion in order to get protein in their diets. Today however it’s been made simple with Egg Protein being produced as supplements. An egg contains about 6 grams of high quality protein, so high that it is used as the standard by which other foods are measured. Eggs also are a rich source of vitamins, including A, E & K, B vitamins, Riboflavin and Folic Acid 5 . They contain all eight essential amino acids needed for muscle recovery and the building of important minerals. You shall find Egg Protein in some of the blended proteins which are available.
Soy Protein : Soy is a Protein that ranks right up there with the best in the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score. Soy Protein is generally very low in or free of Fat, Cholesterol, and Lactose. It is approved for those who are Lactose Intolerant, and is used as a Meat substitute. An Isolate Soy powder shall possess 90%+ Protein 4 .