Otc non steroidal anti inflammatory cream

Countless studies from the past have proven that painkillers come with a series of health problems in addition to their relief. A 2013 study examined 600 trials and found that high doses of NSAIDs increase the risk of heart attacks by one-third. What’s more, ibuprofen was found to more than double the likelihood of a major coronary event. All types of NSAIDs saw a two- to four-fold increased risk of gastrointestinal problems. Even more concerning, a 2014 study found that deaths associated with strokes were 19 percent higher in patients who had been taking NSAIDs.

NSAIDs have anti-inflammatory (reduce inflammation), analgesic (relieve pain) and antipyretic (lower temperature) effects. Although different NSAIDs have different structures, they all work by blocking cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Both types produce prostaglandins; however, the main function of COX-1 enzymes is to produce baseline levels of prostaglandins that activate platelets and protect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas COX-2 enzymes are responsible for releasing prostaglandins after infection or injury. Prostaglandins have a number of different effects, one of which is to regulate inflammation. Most NSAIDs inhibit both enzymes, although a few are available that mainly inhibit COX-2. The pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs are mainly due to inhibition of COX-2, and their unwanted side effects are largely due to inhibition of COX-1.

NSAIDS have antipyretic activity and can be used to treat fever. [75] [76] Fever is caused by elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 , which alters the firing rate of neurons within the hypothalamus that control thermoregulation. [75] [77] Antipyretics work by inhibiting the enzyme COX, which causes the general inhibition of prostanoid biosynthesis ( PGE2 ) within the hypothalamus . [75] [76] PGE2 signals to the hypothalamus to increase the body's thermal set point. [76] [78] Ibuprofen has been shown more effective as an antipyretic than paracetamol (acetaminophen). [77] [79] Arachidonic acid is the precursor substrate for cyclooxygenase leading to the production of prostaglandins F, D & E.

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  • Citation tools Download this article to citation manager Llor Carl , Moragas Ana , Bayona Carolina , Morros Rosa , Pera Helena , Plana-Ripoll Oleguer et al. Efficacy of anti-inflammatory or antibiotic treatment in patients with non-complicated acute bronchitis and discoloured sputum: randomised placebo controlled trial BMJ 2013; 347 :f5762
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    Otc non steroidal anti inflammatory cream

    otc non steroidal anti inflammatory cream

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  • Citation tools Download this article to citation manager Llor Carl , Moragas Ana , Bayona Carolina , Morros Rosa , Pera Helena , Plana-Ripoll Oleguer et al. Efficacy of anti-inflammatory or antibiotic treatment in patients with non-complicated acute bronchitis and discoloured sputum: randomised placebo controlled trial BMJ 2013; 347 :f5762
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