Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the importance of drug delivery and therapeutic outcome

Formulations of topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, piroxicam, and indomethacin demonstrated significantly higher rates of clinical success (more participants with at least 50% pain relief) than matching topical placebo (moderate or high quality data ). Benzydamine did not. Three drug and formulation combinations had NNTs for clinical success below 4. For diclofenac, the Emulgel® formulation had the lowest NNT of (95% CI to ) in two studies using at least 50% pain intensity reduction as the outcome . Diclofenac plasters other than Flector® also had a low NNT of ( to ) based on good or excellent responses in some studies. Ketoprofen gel had an NNT of ( to ), from five studies in the 1980s, some with less well defined outcomes. Ibuprofen gel had an NNT of ( to ) from two studies with outcomes of marked improvement or complete remission. All other drug and formulation combinations had NNT values above 4, indicating lesser efficacy .

If you do take an over the counter pain medication, be sure to follow the directions closely. In general, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen sodium (Aleve) or ketoprofen (Orudis KT) are helpful for those suffering from a sports injury that results in pain, swelling, and inflammation. Generic brands work in the same way and must meet the same standards as the brand name equivalent, but cost less. Read and follow the label directions and don't take more than the recommended dose. Also, don't use any OTC drugs for more than 10 days, unless your doctor or pharmacist tells you it's OK to do so.

Apply to the affected area and massage into the skin gently. Always wash your hands after you have finished rubbing the cream, gel or spray into the skin. This is to make sure that you avoid rubbing this medicine into sensitive areas of the body such as the eyes. Do not apply to skin that is broken, or near the eyes, nose, mouth, genital or bottom (anal) areas. Do not use plasters or bandages (dressings) on top of these medicines. Generally these medicines are applied to the skin 2-4 times a day. However, for specific advice for your medicine, see the leaflet that comes inside the packet.

Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the importance of drug delivery and therapeutic outcome

topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the importance of drug delivery and therapeutic outcome

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